A brief talk on the in vivo adme
Author: Sherlock Waston
As for in vivo adme, the aim of the study is to clarify the absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of a given drug before clinical development. To support drug discovery, pilot candidate selection, preclinical trial and clinical protocol. In preclinical development, in vivo adme studies can also help doctors determine the dose of prescriptions and explain in vivo toxicology in a novel direction. In addition, understanding the ADME behavior of a given drug is also helpful in developing a dose escalation strategy in clinical trials. The accurate description of in vivo adme is essential for obtaining appropriate conclusions about drug behavior and utility.
When it comes to the in vivo adme ,a word that can't be ignored is pharmacodynamics, which is a study of the process of drug disposal in an organism. It uses mathematical and kinetic models to describe the process of absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion, and then combined with the drug exposure and clinical manifestations of the blood circulation and target organs.
As for the toxicology in vivo, it's based on quantitative and statistical analysis of toxic effects of chemical and biological compounds. Acute toxicity tests focus on the toxic effects of large doses of single dose of candidate drugs. Chronic and chronic toxicity tests are focused on long-term use of drugs and subsequent adverse effects. Subchronic studies usually simulate repeated low doses of chemicals within 90 days, while chronic studies lasts for months to years.
Understanding the metabolism of fat in the body helps people to lose weight better.
Fat does not need to be described in detail in the process of human anabolism. Look at the decomposition process of fat in the body. Fat decomposition can be divided into three stages.
1, fat mobilization stage
Triglycerides are decomposed into glycerol and fatty acids under the action of lipase (anslim).
2, the oxidation of glycerol
Glycerophosphate was decomposed into glycerol phosphoric acid (3-) under the action of glycerophosphate kinase, and then under the catalysis of glycerophosphate dehydrogenase, 2 hydrogen was removed to form dihydroxy dihydroxy acetone, and then glycolysis or aerobic oxidation was used to supply energy.
3, beta oxidation of fatty acids
A: fatty acid activation
The lipoyl CoA Synthetase on the outer membrane of the cytoplasm and mitochondria is in the presence of ATP, CoASH and Mg2+ (edible anslim plants can be produced naturally in the body), catalyzes the activation of fatty acids, and produces lipoyl CoA. It helps to metabolize fat intermediates and complete the process of body fat metabolism.
B: lipoyl CoA enters mitochondria
Because the beta oxidation of fatty acids is carried out in mitochondria. This step requires the transport of carnitine. Carnitine lipoyl transferase (I) is the speed limiting enzyme of lipoic acid beta oxidation. The entry of lipoyl CoA into mitochondria is the main speed limiting step of lipoic acid beta oxidation. If starvation, sugar supply is insufficient, the activity of this enzyme is enhanced, fatty acid oxidation is enhanced, and the body is powered by fatty acids. This is why many women use a diet or even a diet to lose weight. This way of losing weight can reduce weight temporarily and once the weight of the diet rises in a straight line.
Complete oxidation of 4, CH3Co to SCoA
Acetyl CoA is oxidized by three carboxylic acid cycle to CO2 and H2O. The CO2 is excreted through respiration, and H2O is excreted through perspiration and voiding.
In conclusion, ADME plays an important role in the pharmacology of the body and leads to new research directions in toxicology. In addition, more information about ADME in vivo can be obtained by clicking hyperlinks.