A brief talk on the dmpk studies
Drug metabolism and pharmacokinetics are a study of the process of drug disposal in organisms, using mathematical and kinetic models to describe and simulate the processes of absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion, and combine the characteristics of blood circulation and targeted drugs. An organ for the treatment of a pathological clinical manifestation.
In order to reduce clinical failure due to features such as PK, instability, low permeability, or high toxicity, there have been considerable efforts to develop screening for various DMPK property candidates in vitro, in vivo, and in silicon methods. The characterization of the ADME spectrum is an important part of the selected lead screening, and the complete profile of the similar properties of the candidate drug can be obtained in this step. At the same time, this study can be used as a method to further study in vivo compounds. In vitro selection winners will perform in vivo experiments, in which evaluation of the pharmacokinetics of experimental animals provides the most physiologically relevant preclinical testing system, reflecting the complexity of all DMPK properties including PK/PD analysis, compound distribution. Toxicity and safety data. All of these prescreening trials predict what happens when candidates are applied to humans. The selected process will benefit the entire drug discovery and development program, with low time and cost but high quality.
Pharmacokinetic describing how the body through the mechanism of absorption and distribution, as well as the material in the body of metabolic changes (such as such as the cytochrome P450 metabolic enzymes or glucuronic acid transferase) to influence the delivery after the specific sources of biological/chemical substances. excretion and action pathway of drug metabolites. the pharmacokinetic characteristics of drugs are affected by the drug delivery pathway and dosage. These may affect the absorption rate.
Models have been developed to simplify the conceptualization of many processes occurring in interactions between organisms and chemicals. One of multiple atrioventricular model, is the most commonly used approximate reality, however, involves the parameters and the modeling method increase complexity means that a single partition model and the above two atrioventricular model is the most commonly used. The compartments that the model is divided into are often referred to as ADME solutions (also known as LADME, if liberation is included as a separation step from absorption) :
Liberation - the process of releasing drugs from a pharmaceutical preparation. see IVIVC.
Absorption - the process by which substances enter the bloodstream.
Distribution - the dispersal or diffusion of substances throughout the body in fluids and tissues.
Metabolism (or bioconversion or inactivation) - the recognition of the presence of foreign substances and the irreversible conversion of parent compounds into offspring metabolites.
Fecal matter -- the material released from the body. In some rare cases, some drugs accumulate irreversibly in the tissues of the body.
The two phases of metabolism and excretion can also be grouped together under the heading elimination. The study of these different stages involves the use and manipulation of basic concepts in order to understand process dynamics. For this reason, in order to fully understand the dynamics of drug, it is necessary for a detailed understanding of many factors, such as: as excipient of the properties of matter, appropriate biofilm characteristics and the way the material can cross the T's. The characteristic of an enzyme reaction that inactivates or deactivates a drug.
All of these concepts can be represented by mathematical formulas with corresponding graphical representations. The use of these models allows to understand the characteristics of a molecule, and how specific drug behavior will give information about some of its basic characteristics, such as its acid dissociation constant (PKA), bioavailability, solubility and absorption ability and DIST. Ribosomes in living organisms
Model outputs of drugs can be used in industry (for example, to calculate bioequivalencein the design of generic drugs) or in clinical applications of pharmacokinetic concepts. Clinical pharmacokinetics provides many effective and effective guidelines for the use of drugs for human health professionals and veterinary medicine.