A brief talk on the bioequivalence
Bioequivalence is a statistical difference in the degree and speed of drug absorption between test preparations and standard preparations under the same experimental conditions. When the difference in absorption rate does not have clinical significance, some drugs can be considered as bioequivalent, the same absorption rate and different speed.
Bioequivalence was used to evaluate whether the two drugs had the same or similar effect on patients. For example, different people respond differently to the injection of protein kinase.
Protein kinase is a kind of important kinase. The main function of signal transduction is two aspects: one is to regulate the activity of protein by phosphorylation, and the second is to amplify the signal step by step by phosphorylation of protein and cause the cell reaction. There are many kinds of protein kinases. This article focuses on the functions of protein kinase PKA, PKB, PKC and MAPC.
There are two main functions of protein kinase in signal transduction: one is to regulate the activity of protein by phosphorylation. Phosphorylation and dephosphorylation are the common mechanisms of the reversible activation of most signal pathway components, some proteins are active after phosphorylation, some are active after dephosphorylation, and the other is through the process of phosphorylation. The gradual phosphorylation of protein leads to gradual amplification of signal and cell response. The functions of several kinases are described below.
Function of protein kinase A
Protein kinase A (protein kinase A, PKA), also known as cAMP dependent protein kinase A (cyclic-AMP dependent protein kinase A), is a kind of silk / threonine protein kinase. It is generally believed that almost all cAMP in eukaryotic cells is activated by activating PKA, resulting in phosphorylation of its substrate proteins.
The PKA total enzyme molecule is a four polymer consisting of four subunits, of which two are regulatory subunit (R subunit for short), and the other two are catalytic subunit (C subunit). The whole enzyme is inactive. Activated PKA can act on a variety of enzymes related to glycolipid metabolism, some ion channels and some transcription factors that make them phosphorylate and change their state.
Exocytosis and endocytosis are thought to involve calcium, protein kinase and GTP enzyme dynamin. It is revealed that there is a fast cell swallow that does not depend on calcium ions and dynamin on DRG neurons, and extracellular calcium ions can block intracellular calcium dependent exocytosis, and both the neuroelectroactivity and protein kinase A regulate the two forms of vesicle transport and do not require a calcium ionization flow.
Function of protein kinase B
Protein kinase B, also known as ATK, is a silk / threonine protein kinase. It is named PKB because of its relatively high homology with PKA and PKC. Molecular weight 60KD is divided into three categories: PKB, PKB and PKB. PKB alpha exists widely in the tissues of the body, and its activity is regulated by a variety of information substances; PK beta is overexpressed in ovarian and pancreatic cancer; PKB gamma is expressed in the brain and testis. The PKB molecule is composed of 480 amino acid residues, including the regulatory region of the amino terminal, the kinase region in the middle and the tail three part of the carboxy terminal.
PKB/AKT is a special protein kinase which is activated by PI3K pathway under the action of cytokines and growth factors. It plays an important regulatory role in cell metabolism, growth regulation and inhibition of cell apoptosis. The correlation of extracellular survival factors to intracellular growth, metabolism and apoptosis mechanism is effective. It has a complex hinge with Ras.G protein, PKA and PKC.