Cellulase is any of several enzymes produced chiefly by fungi, bacteria, and protozoans that catalyze cellulolysis, the decomposition of cellulose and of some related polysaccharides. It also means any naturally occurring mixture or complex of various such enzymes (e.g. Native Cellulase from Talaromyces emersonii) that act serially or synergistically to decompose cellulosic material. Cellulases can be used in many fields, such as food processing, pulp and paper industry and non-food industries including textile and household cleaning. As the biotechnology develops, cellulases are also used for pharmaceutical research.
For a better effect of cellulases, people have found out 6 factors that affect cellulases in applications: 1. Immobilization of cellulases Cellulase is a protein and very unstable, and its structure is easily destroyed. By using physical or chemical methods, cellulase can be combined with the water-insoluble macromolecule carrier or embedded inside it so that cellulase can dissolve in the water or in the semi permeable membrane of the microcapsule for the decrease of fluidity and the increase of stability, thereby to enhance the efficiency of cellulase. 2. Environmental pH Due to the properties of protein, the structure of cellulase is easily destroyed if it is in an overly acidic or alkaline environment. Therefore, it must be in a suitable pH environment (usually pH3-6) during the process of using cellulose so as to make the most of the role of cellulase. 3. Environmental temperature Temperature has two effects on the rate of enzymatic reaction: on the one hand, when the temperature rises in a certain range, the reaction speed will accelerate; on the other hand, the zymoprotein will gradually degenerate with the temperature rising, the reaction speed will decrease beyond a certain range, which will eventually lead to the inactivation of cellulase. So we must pay attention to controlling the reaction temperature when using cellulase. 4. The concentration of cellulase in the environment The principle of enzymatic reaction of cellulase is identical with chemical reaction. Firstly, with the increase of the concentration of cellulase in the reaction environment, the reaction rate will gradually accelerate. However, the cellulase should first form the intermediate complex in the reaction process, and then react further. Therefore, with the increase of cellulase, the contact area between cellulase and substrate will gradually decrease, which will lead to the inability of cellulose. So if cellulase is overly added to the reaction environment, the catalytic efficiency of cellulase will be inhibited. 5. Carbohydrate that plays a protective role for cellulase Sucrose, glucose, maltose, trehalose and other carbohydrates can protect cellulose at room temperature. The method of adding protectant is the simplest and easiest way to stabilize enzymes, but it will accelerate the inactivation of enzymes at high temperature. Glucan has no protective effect on cellulase at room temperature, but it has obvious protective effect at high temperature. 6. Inhibitors and activators Cellulase is a protein with activity itself. Therefore, some heavy metal ions, trace elements and other substances can inhibit the activity of cellulase. On the contrary, some sodium ions can increase the activity of cellulase. So attention should be paid to the existence of inhibitors or activators in the environment when using cellulase.
All in all, the function of cellulase is affected not only by cellulase strains and their own quality but also by the environment. Thus good production technology and using methods are even more important than the quality of cellulase itself during the manufacturing process of cellulose. Creative Enzymes has been dedicated to this field all the time to supply people with premium enzyme products and services.